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taxon links [up-->]Heterobranchia [up-->]Caenogastropoda [down<--]Mollusca Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

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Relationships after Ponder & Lindberg 1997.
Containing group: Mollusca

Other Names for Gastropoda


Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross, and A. Wells (eds.) 1998. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia, Vol 5. Part B. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Bieler, R., 1992. Gastropod phylogeny and systematics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23: 311-338.

Colgan, D. J., W. F. Ponder, E. Beacham, and J. M. Macaranas. 2003. Gastropod phylogeny based on six segments from four genes representing coding or non-coding and mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Molluscan Research 23:123-148.

Colgan, D. J., W. F. Ponder, and P. E. Eggler. 2000. Gastropod evolutionary rates and phylogenetic relationships assessed using partial 28S rDNA and histone H3 sequences. Zoologica Scripta 29(1):29-63.

Grande, C., J. Templado, J. L. Cervera and R. Zardoya. 2002. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) supports the monophyly of opisthobranchs. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:1672-1685.

Kurabayashi, A. and R. Ueshima. 2000. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the primitive opisthobranch gastropod Pupa strigosa: systematic implication of the genome organization. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17:266-277.

Lydeard, C. and D.R. Lindberg, eds. 2003. Molecular Systematics and Phylogeography of Mollusks. Smithsonian Books, Washington.

McArthur, A.G. and M.G. Harasewych. 2003. Molecular systematics of the major lineages of the Gastropoda. Pages 140-160 in: Molecular Systematics and Phylogeography of Mollusks. C. Lydeard and D.R. Lindberg, eds. Smithsonian Books, Washington.

Ponder, W. F. and D. R. Lindberg. 1996. Gastropod phylogeny - challenges for the 90's. Pages 135-154 in Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of Mollusca. J. D. Taylor, ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ponder, W. F. and D. R. Lindberg. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 119:83-265.

Salvini-Plawen, L. v. 1980. A reconstruction of systematics in the Mollusca (phylogeny and higher classification). Malacologia 19:249-278.

Steiner, G. and H. Dreyer. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of Scaphopoda (Mollusca) inferred from 18s rDNA sequences: Support for a Scaphopoda-Cephalopoda clade. Zoologica Scripta 32:343-356.

Wagner, P. J. 2001. Gastropod phylogenetics: progress, problems, and implications. Journal of Paleontology 75:1128-1140.

Wilding, C. S., P. J. Mill, and J. Grahame. 1999. Partial sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Littorina saxatilis: relevance to gastropod phylogenetics. Journal of Molecular Evolution 48:348-359.

Winnepenninckx, B., G. Steiner, T. Backeljau, and R. De Wachter. 1998. Details of gastropod phylogeny inferred from 18S rRNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9:55-63.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Nudibranchia
Comments Silver cloud nudibranch
Creator P. Crawford & D. Giberson, UPEI
Copyright © BIODIDAC
Scientific Name Trichia hispida
Location near the University of Antwerp's Campus Groenenborger in Belgium
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Trichia hispida
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2007 Aydin Írstan
Scientific Name Gastropoda
Comments a limpet
Creator P. Crawford, UPEI
Copyright © BIODIDAC
About This Page

All Rights Reserved.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 1995. Gastropoda. Version 01 January 1995 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Gastropoda/19385/1995.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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